Historical Timeline of Ithaca

A HISTORICAL TIME LINE OF ITHACA

AND

ITHACAN MIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA

 

4000-3000 BC- First inhabitants appeared on the Island.

3000-2000BC- From excavations carried out, at or around the Pilikata sight, as well as the Loizos Cave, in Northern Ithaki, we find that the original inhabitants were indigenous Greeks.

1500 BC- The Mycenaean period, the whole Island was inhabited, and proclaimed the capital of Cephalonia.

1194-1184 BC - The Trojan wars.

1174 BC- Ulysses returns to Ithaki.

1000 BC- Ithaki reached a high point, and it was called “The Kingdom of Ithaca”. It included the entire Ionion Islands, as well as parts of mainland Acarnania.

500 BC- the population declined, due to soil degradation, and was forced mainly to inhabit the Northern part of the island, which was still cultivated.

180 BC, Ithaki was part of the “Roman province of Illyria”.

Around this period, the port or harbour of Polis or Jerusalem was built, situated beneath the village of Stavros.

967 AD- as a result of an earthquake, Polis or Jerusalem, sunk into the sea. Old foundation remnants are still evident, at a depth of approximately 3 metres from the surface.

1086 AD- we have evidence of the first pirates on the Island.

1185 AD- Ithaki was conquered by the Normans.

1200 AD- the Island was ceded, by the Normans, to the Orsini family.

The Orsini family remained rulers until 1357, after which the king of Naples handed it over to the Tocco family. Establishment of the villages of Old Anoghi, (above Anoghi), and Aghia Kyriaki (near Exoghi).

1479 -the Turks plundered and partially destroyed Ithaki, along with the rest of the Ionion Islands.

At this time many Ithacan hostages were sold as slaves. Remaining population begin to abandon the Island.
 
1499- War breaks out between the Turks and the Venetians, resulting in the Island being handed over to the Venetians (1504).

1502-1503-Many Lefkadians inhabit the Island.

1504- The Venetian senate at this stage, granted land as well as no taxes, to whomever wished to remain or return to the Island, in an attempt to stabilise its population. Many people took up this offer, most from the mainland of Greece, which was suffering from the Turkish occupation.

1548- Three new villages are established on Ithaki, namely, Anoghi, Stavronikion (Exoghi), and Paleohora, whereby it is alleged that approximately sixty families were living.

1569- Ithaki was fortified for the first time. Population increases to 10,000 inhabitants.

A degree of opulence among the inhabitants emerged during the turn of the 17th century, with massive land cultivation, and establishment of a commercial fleet, which carried out trade throughout Europe. The Ithacan fleet took part in all battles for liberation from the Turks up until 1821.

1797- French take over the Ionion Islands, but hold them for only one year.

1798-1799-Russians and Turks succeeded the French, and a 14 member senate governed until 1807.

1807- French rule returned for another two years.

1809- England ruled the Islands under an amicable protectorate agreement, and established “The United States of the Ionion Islands”.

1821- During the Greek-Turkish revolution,many Ithacans become members of the “Friendly Society” (Filiki eteria). They took active rolls in its activities, and offered refuge, on Ithaki, to fugitive Greeks from the mainland. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria, was chosen as the first King of Greece. He reigned from 1821-1863. He was overthrown in a revolution.

1829- Many Ithacans seek employment at sea, on English ships.

1845- A slow emigration to Rumania takes place.

EMIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA

1850- Discovery of gold in Australia.

Between 1850 and 1871, the population of Melbourne grew from 70,000 to 1.7 million.
 
1853- One of the first Ithacans to arrive in Australia was Andreas Lekatsas (Lucas). He allegedly jumped ship and disembarked in Melbourne, to join the gold rush epidemic in Victoria. He is part of the gold diggers of Ballarat, living in the district tent city, and takes part in the Eureka stockade in 1854. (Some documents have him arriving in 1845).
Another was George Paxino who subsequently resides in Ballarat and operates a barber shop.

1862- Population of Ithaki peaked at 14,600 inhabitants. This over population forces its inhabitants to seek alternative greener pastures for their survival. A massive migration to Rumania takes place. King George 1st reigns in Greece up until 1913. He was assassinated.

1864- England returned the Eptanesian Islands to Greece, on 21st May.

1886- Word circulates among the villages of Ithaki about the discovery of gold in Kalgoorlie, Australia. A number of Ithacans take the chance to emigrate, seeking their fortunes in the distant gold fields of Australia. Young Ithacans like the Lekatsas brothers Marinos and Antonios, as well as George Morfesis and many more disembarked in Melbourne, and established themselves as successful businessmen. They prospered in real estate development, cafes, and in a variety of retail and wholesale food establishments.

1871-According to census there were 19 women and 127 men born in Greece living in Victoria.

1894- Antonios Ioannis Gerasimos Lekatsas (Antony John Jereos Lucas), changed name by deed pole in 1903 when he became naturalised, established the first Greek café named “The Town Hall Café” in Swanston street Melbourne. He became an Honorary Greek Consul General for Australia 1921-1925, and between 1931 until his death in 1946, was the Greek Consul for Victoria.

1896- First Greek Orthodox priest arrives in Australia, Archimandrite Dorotheos Bakaliaros.

1897- “The Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria” was established, mainly organised and controlled by Ithacans of Melbourne.

1898- First Greek Orthodox priest arrived in Melbourne, Father Athanasios Kantopoulos

1899- First afternoon Greek school operated in Chalmers Hall, Gipps street East Melbourne.

Early part of the 20th century, massive immigration from Ithaki into Melbourne takes place.

1901- Australia becomes a Federation on 1st January.

First Greek Orthodox Church “Evangelismos” was erected and established in Victoria street East Melbourne. Church is now heritage listed.

1913- Ithacan men, living in Australia, decided to partake in the Balkan wars.

1915-Nearly all of the café’s in Melbourne’s CBD were owned and operated by Ithacans.

1916- The Ithacan Philanthropic Society “The Ulysses” was established; housed in the Michaels building, corner of Elizabeth and Lonsdale streets in Melbourne. At this stage the membership of the society was restricted to men only, who were citizens of Ithaca, and their descendants. First president was Antonios Ioannis Gerasimos Lekatsas later known as Antony John Jereos Lucas.

First Anti Greek riots took place in Kalgoorlie.

1917-First AGM of the Ithacan Society was held on 4th March.

1918- First picnic of the Ithacan Society, was held on 24th March, and the first Ithacan Ball on 23rd April.

Society decided to expand their foot print in Australia and established representatives at every capital city for its promotion and expansion.
Name of the Society was changed to:
“Philanthropic Society of Ithacans in Australia “The Odysseus” incorporated in Melbourne.”
A new Society stamp was created to reflect the change.

1919-Due to an influenza epidemic, it was decided to cancel the Ithacan second annual picnic, as well as limit gatherings at our club rooms for a two month period, being from January through to April.

1924- Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Australia and New Zealand was established, and was controlled by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople under the auspices of Metropolitan Christoforos Knitis of Serres.

1935-A motion was carried allowing the wives and daughters of Ithacans to become members of the Society. Constitution, which was written in Greek, was updated to reflect this change.

1940- Ithacan men, living in Australia, enlisted into the Australian Defence forces.

1944- An appeal was launched by the Society to aid war victims on Ithaca.
Our constitution was translated from Greek into the English language by Nikiforos Lekatsas.
On the 5-6-1944 our Society was registered as a Company Limited by Guarantee. The registered name being:
Ithacan Philanthropic Society “The Ulysses”
The only article waived in the constitution, prior to it becoming a company, was the one stating “that the wives and daughters of Ithacans become Active Members of the Society”.
This motion was presented and voted in the affirmative at the AGM held on 1-9-1935.

1945- First fortnightly club room family dances were established, and run until 1957.

1947- Spiros Deftereos, an Ithacan residing in Melbourne, represented the Greek wrestling team at the London Olympics in 1948. IPS raised funds through an appeal to send Mr Spiros Deftereos to the Olympic Games in London.

1953- Earthquake appeal was launched to assist Ithacan earthquake victims.

1956- Property was purchased at 329 Elizabeth street Melbourne, by the Ithacan Philanthropic Society “The Ulysses”.

1957- Debentures were issued by the Society to raise funds for the construction of the Society’s new building at 329 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne. Construction began on Society’s new building.

1958 -Newly constructed building “Ithaca House” was completed on this site.

1959- Metropolis of Australia and New Zealand was elevated to Archdiocese, and Metropolitan Ezekiel promoted to Archbishop.

1970- New Zealand Orthodox church was separated from Australia, and named Metropolis of New Zealand.

1974- First publication of our “Odysseus” newspaper, by Stathis Raftopoulos.

1975- Stylianos Harkianakis becomes the new Archbishop of Australia.

1978- IPS decided to redeem all debentures issued during 1957.

1982- Stathis Raftopoulos, received a Member of the British Empire (MBE) award, for services rendered to the Greek Community.

1985- Women were now permitted to become “Active Members” of the Ithacan Philanthropic Society “The Ulysses”, provided that they fulfilled the criteria, set out by the constitution.

1988- Panoyiannis Raftopoulos proposed that a bursary be granted by the Society to the two highest ATAR score VCE recipients, being children of members of our Society. This bursary was for one year and included a $500 monetary prize plus a gift.

1993- The “Ithacan Historical Society Inc.” was established. First elected Historical Society president was George Coutsouvelis HLM.
 
1995It was proposed by the IPS executive committee, that all VCE recipients, being children of members of our Society, were now eligible to receive a Bursary. Apart from the two highest score recipients who received a $500 bursary, the remainder of applicants whose ATAR scores were from the third highest and below, received a $300 monetary prize plus a gift.
 

2002- Professor George Paxinos AO, received an Officer of the Order of Australia award, for services rendered to neuroscience research, at national and international levels.

3rd April 2005- Ithacan Cook Book was launched.

4th April 2005- Fire broke out on the first floor of our premises at 329 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne.


16th June 2005- Major building renovations took place at our premises, including newly renovated club rooms, on the second floor, and the installation of a 20 person lift.


9th April 2006-Newly refurbished club rooms were opened for the first time to our members and friends.


29th May 2006- Ladies Bingo sessions commenced.


6th October 2008- The name “Ithaca” was included among the “migrant arrival” section on the Sandridge Bridge over the Yarra River.


1st June 2009-Lula Black was elected as the Historical Society’s President.


3rd August 2009- A handicraft workshop called “Penelope’s Loom” was established.

2011- Alex Zotos made available two awards on our Bursary awards day in memory of his late mother Ms Elly Lukas. First award being a cheque for $2,000, presented to a girl of a member of our Society with the highest ATAR score. Second award was made available to a girl showing an aptitude for beauty therapy, towards a course at the Elly Lukas Beauty Therapy College, to the value of $10,000.


2012- The Society’s Bursary awards were re-named as follows:
Two students with the highest ATAR score will receive the “Panoyiannis Raftopoulos” Bursary award. This award included a $1,000 monetary prize, plus a gift. All other student applicants will receive “The Ithacan Philanthropic Society” Bursary award. This award included a monetary prize of $300, plus a gift.
Professor George Paxinos AO was the recipient of the “HACCI Lifetime Achievement” award; also he was elected into the prestigious “Athens Academy” as a foreign member in the Positive Sciences category.
Members of our Society, for the first time, laid a wreath at the Australian-Hellenic War Memorial Royal Botanic Gardens, on the 28th October OHI (OXI) celebrations.


2013- Our Society became a sponsor of the “Australian-Hellenic War Memorial Foundation”.


3-March 2013- Mr George Paxinos launched his book with the title “Passage to Ithaca


25th March 2013- Members of our Society, for the first time, laid a wreath at the Australian-Hellenic War Memorial, at the Royal Botanic Gardens, celebrating Greece’s liberation from the Ottoman Empire in 1821.


21st April 2013-Mr Alex Zotos was bestowed an “Honorary Membership” of our Society.

25th April 2013- Members of our Society took part in the Anzac Day march for the first time.


10th November 2013- Kyriakos Amanatides launched his book, published by Tsonis publishers, with the title:
Stathis Raftopoulos MBE-A Contemporary Ulysses in the Antipodes


22nd November 2013- Professor Emeritus George Dracoulis received the “HACCI Lifetime Achievement Award” for his contribution in the field of “Nuclear Physics Research”.


15 December 2013-His Excellency the Ambassador of the Hellenic Republic in Australia Mr Harris Dafaranos accompanied by his wife Mrs Eva Dafaranos were our honoured guests at the IPS 2013 member’s Christmas Luncheon.


14th November 2014-Mrs Kaliope Paxinos received the HACCI “Community Services Award” for 2104.


18th November 2014-The family of the late Mr Stathis Raftopoulos MBE, past president and honorary life member of our Society, has made available a $2,000 bursary, to be allocated to a male student, the son of a member of our Society, who has completed his VCE with the highest score (85 and over), among the male bursary applicants for that year. This bursary award will be called “The Stathis Raftopoulos Memorial Award” and will be made available by the Raftopoulos family at this stage for the ensuing three years.


21st November 2015- Professor George Andrew Varigos received the HACCI “Professional Excellence Award” for 2015.


2016- Our first IPS centenary (1916-2016).


14th February 2016- IPS Centenary Picnic took place at the Ferny Creek Recreation Reserve.


6th March 2016- IPS celebrated the Centenary Opening at “Swanston Hall” at the Melbourne Town Hall.


12th March 2016- Professor George Paxinos AO presented his first novel “Kat eikona” at the Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria.